How to Roast Green Coffee At Home
Home roasting coffee Guide - a sensory experience
Why roast coffee beans yourself?
Why should you go ahead and roast your coffee yourself? There are many good reasons to roast your coffee beans yourself, but it depends a bit on who you are. Some are attracted to the idea of having full control over the process from roasting to cup. Others thought it was exciting to experiment with different roasting profiles on the same kind of beans, some do it to save a little and others again just think it’s fun.
One thing is for sure, if you roast your coffee yourself you will get a finished result that is fresher than what you can buy. But on the other hand, you are also responsible for managing the process along the way and it can sometimes be an art to hit the roasting profile that you as home caretakers set out to do, but more on that later.
When you are a home roaster, you are in many ways in the midst of your senses. Because unlike professional coffee roasters, where the coffee is roasted in large gas-powered drum grills and with strict temperature control and various instruments to regulate precisely the temperature, you as a home roaster are far out of the way to use your senses and common sense when assessing where far one is in the roasting process.
Therefore, I would highly recommend that you use your entire sensing device along the way to measure and sense where you are in the process. Because home roasting is basically a very sensual experience.
What is a roasting profile?
The definition of a roasting profile is not written in stone
As there is no industry standard, like most other roasters we have prepared some names for our various profiles. From light to dark roastings. In general.
As a consumer, it may well cause some confusion. That not all coffee roasters use the same concepts. But it is certainly not crazy nerdy or otherwise complicated. The concepts we use are just the ones we work with when we move in the nuances of the three classic coffee roasts: light, medium and dark. Which we do a lot.
Because fortunately, little has happened since the days when only three options were referred – or maybe even just two; because we do not have to go back many years before the coffee available was limited to being either medium or dark roasted. Roasting profiles was previously largely unused.
Fortunately, development is inevitable, and for an industry with maybe just a little extra caffeine in the blood, it has gone strong over the past 10 years. Sometimes too strong and before everyone has leather aprons and white lab gloves – then it might be fair to stop and check to see if the regular consumer is actually still with.
Roasting profiles -
one of several guidelines for finding the right coffee for you!
Of course it is very different what works well for the individual bean. Some beans may be good in almost all profiles – just very different in expression – and others are limited to doing well in one area of the scale and being indifferent in others … but it is a completely different and long talk. We will take it at another time.
But the above section is to give an insight into what we are working on and also often refer to. But you also need to know that the roasting profile is one of several guidelines for finding the right coffee for one. It’s like the geography. Not all beans from Kenya taste the same and can do the same. Not all beans from the Tarrazu region of Costa Rica will taste the same.
There are many variations that come into play. But that is exactly why it is good to realize the difference and the meaning – and then try it out otherwise.
What the does Silvercity mean?
From time to time I`m are asked what a Silverscity or a Full City is; and sometimes discover that I may have talked or written just enough. And then it’s good we have our little coffee universe here at CoffeeSamurai.Com. For it is both interesting and really anything but complicated. And then, not least, it makes a lot more sense for our readers, and customers.
The following is the division into roasting profiles that we use both in texts, in webshops and on information boards in the cafes. And it’s pretty easy to get to. Whichever it should be. For it is – as it is important to remember – a variant of many when we talk about the best possible coffee choice for the individual coffee provider.
Light roasting. Low bitterness. High acidity. Fresh fruity and floral notes. Very light brown color. We mostly use this roast profile to test the coffees. The experience for many coffees is quite uneasy (without direction).
Light grate. Still low bitterness. More direction for the coffee: Controlled acidity and sweetness in the tones. Completely dry bean surface and wrinkled. Medium fullness. Medium brown color.
City + [C +]
Balanced center`ìsh roasting profile. Dimmed acidity and clearer sweetness. Balance Point. More heavy but still very wide (taste) palette. The surface of the beans is dry and a little bumpy yet. Brown beans.
Full City [FC]
The medium dark roasting profile. Little bitterness. Weak acidity. Caramelization. Heavier tones and good frame for the sweet notes. Surface smoothed out. Dark brown color with a little glow, which comes out to many good cups of filter coffee for those who like a full cup.
Full City + [FC +]
Dark grid. Bitterness dominated. The acidity disappeared. Powerful and simplifying taste. Oils begin to shine on the beans’ completely smooth deep dark surface. It is the most compact and tasting espresso of Southern Italy.
Listen for the "crack" as you roast
But how do you know when to hit the right roasting profile and to stop?
Hitting a precise profile such as “Full City” is very, very difficult as home roasters, and so we encourage you to go for a light, medium or dark grid – and then to a great extent use your senses.
As home roasters, it is very important to use your ears, as much as the eyes and nose. Because if you pay attention you can hear how far in the carving you have come.
Coffee beans “crack” when roasted and it gives a clear and very characteristic sound. If you listen carefully. Some roasting methods make a lot of noise and then it is difficult to distinguish the sounds from each other. At least in the beginning.
When the green coffee beans crack, which they can do twice along the way, this is the first time because they contain between 12-15% percent water. As the water evaporates along the way, you can hear these cracking, which comes from the beans expanding.
As mentioned, the coffee beans crack twice. The first crack is to have the beans through before they are suitable for drinking. With the trend of very light roasting in recent years, it is here just after the first crack that many now choose to stop the roasting.
When the second crack comes, it is because the coffee bean structure begins to collapse when you hear the 2nd crack, it is usually time to stop the roasting process. If not it should have stopped already. The art is precisely that, to stop the roasting process in the right place:
Silvercity [SC] (At the end of the 1st crack)
Very light shakeLow bitterness. High acidity. Fresh fruity and floral notes. Very light brown color.
City [C] (Right after the 1st crack)
Light grate. Still low bitterness. Controlled acidity. Sweetness in the notes. Completely dry bean surface and wrinkled. Medium fullness. Medium brown color.
City + [C +] (between 1st and 2nd crack)
Between roasting. Dimmed acidity and clearer sweetness. Balance Point. More heaviness. The surface of the beans is dry and a little bumpy yet. Brown beans.
Full City [FC] (before the 2nd crack)
The medium dark roasting profile. Little bitterness. Weak acidity. Caramelization. Heavier tones. Surface smoothed out. Dark brown color with a little glow.
Full City + [FC +] (around 2nd crack)
Dark grid. Bitterness dominated. The acidity disappeared. Powerful and simplifying taste. Oils begin to pull out of the beans and shine on the beans’ completely smooth deep dark surface.
How long does it take to roast your green coffee beans in the oven?
It is very difficult to answer as it is very dependent on both the beans you use, the roasting profile you are trying to hit, your oven, how often and whether you open the oven on the way to stir the beans, etc., but set aside at least 15 minutes. of; and be aware that you can easily finish a lot before shaking your head.
How to roast your green coffee beans in the oven
What you will need:
- Palette knife / Spatula
- Coffee scale
- Valve bag
- Baking pan (baking paper is not needed)
- 200-400 grams of Green Coffee Beans
Roasting your coffee in the oven is not that complicated, but you need to be vigilant for the result to be good, so be careful and write everything down so you can repeat the process if your result is good. Likewise, by listing along the way, you can improve your next roasting if you were not completely satisfied with the result.
- Turn on the oven. Start by preheating your oven to about 225 degrees. It is important here that you do not use hot air when roasting, since green coffee beans have thin shells / bait that loosen during heating – if you use hot air these can blow around and get stuck inside the oven.
2. Find your roasting pan. Divide your green coffee beans into a thin layer in the roasting pan. It is important here that the green coffee beans are in one layer, because if several coffee beans are on top of each other, the roasting will be uneven. Do not use oil or other fats.
3. Put the roasting pan in the oven
Once your oven has reached 225 degrees, you can start your timer and put the roasting pan in the oven. Make sure the plate is in the middle of the oven.
4. Listen to the magic
Now that the coffee beans are in the oven, you are about to find out how long you want to roast them. Here it is important to use the ears well, because during the roasting process, coffee beans give two series of cracks / cracks which you must pay close attention to when roasting. They will tell you how far you have come in the roasting process. As a rule of thumb, you get a light roast if you stop around “first crack”; while in return you get a very dark roast if you wait for “another crack”.
5. Use the eyes
As mentioned before, as home roaster, you are in many ways left to rely on your senses, and this applies to the highest degree, too. Vision is one of your most important tools when it comes to assessing the roasting process. The color of the coffee beans is a good indicator of when the desired roasting is achieved.
6. Use your nose
When you roast your green coffee beans, they will begin to develop smoke along the way. This is not something you should be afraid of, but a natural part of the roasting process. The smoke development becomes more intense the darker you roast the beans and therefore, with some experience and together with the visual and hearing sense, you can also use the nose to assess when the desired grate is obtained.
7. Should the coffee beans be turned?
We do not recommend turning your coffee beans along the way, as you will get a dip in the oven temperature every time you open it. This is one of the great challenges for a homeroaster, because on the one hand, an ordinary kitchen oven, often heats very unevenly and your roasting will therefore be similarly uneven. But on the other hand it also goes beyond the taste if you try to flip them along the way, then the oven temperature is lowered; and when you roast coffee, you would prefer to have a smooth roasting curve.
8. Cooling the Coffee Beans When, based on the color and crunch of the coffee beans, you find that they have had enough, you take them out of the oven and cool them down. It is best for the taste that you quickly cool the coffee beans – preferably within 5 minutes. The easiest way to cool them down is to have a cold roasting pan ready to flip over.
9. Then the coffee is ready! – or that is, it is almost ready .
Roasting coffee beans is a pretty tough process for them, and afterwards the roasted coffee beans will continue to develop and release Co2; in fact, it can take up to 3 days from roasting your coffee until it has completely degassed. Therefore, completely freshly roasted coffee can also have a very pungent taste that is not particularly charming. If you experience it – then pour the coffee on airtight valve bags or the like (tupperware, jar with relatively tight lid, etc.) and wait a few days before starting the next exciting phase: the tasting.
Roasting coffee beans on a pan
You will need the following:
- Green coffee beans
- Wok or pan
- Cooling plate.
- Time: 12-15 min.
- Turn up the flame on the stove, you have a thermometer so try to hit a temperature of 220-230 degrees.
- Turn on the hood (for it will smoke)
- Use a pan or a cheap wok – make sure it is clean
- Divide the coffee beans into a layer in the wok / pan and put on the flame.
- Be sure to constantly stir in the coffee beans along the way, otherwise the roasting will not be even and the coffee beans will burn.
- Stir, shake, stir, shake
- After 12-15 min. Your roasting should be done, but it may vary so listen to when the coffee pops.
- When you are satisfied with your roasting, pour the beans onto a plate and let them cool.
- Pour the roasted coffee beans into an airtight container, preferably a valve bag as they now release Co2.
- Let them rest 1-3 days before brewing coffee on them.
Another method is to use one of the small home coffee roasters such as the amazing Gene Café Roaster.
With a home coffee roaster, it is much easier to control both time and temperature when roasting the coffee; and the result also gets better and more consistent. Unfortunately, the coffee roasters are not quite cheap either, but provide greater control over the process.
This also means that many homeowners over time choose to switch to coffee roasters.